Publications by Year: 2022

2022
S. Y. Shin, K. Hohl, M. Gifhorn, L. N. Awad, C. J. Walsh, and A. Jayaraman, “Soft robotic exosuit augmented high intensity gait training on stroke survivors: a pilot study,” Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 19, no. 51, 2022. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of serious gait impairments and restoring walking ability is a major goal of physical therapy interventions. Soft robotic exosuits are portable, lightweight, and unobtrusive assistive devices designed to improve the mobility of post-stroke individuals through facilitation of more natural paretic limb function during walking training. However, it is unknown whether long-term gait training using soft robotic exosuits will clinically impact gait function and quality of movement post-stroke.

Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to examine the therapeutic efects of soft robotic exosuit-augmented gait training on clinical and biomechanical gait outcomes in chronic post-stroke individuals.

Methods: Five post-stroke individuals received high intensity gait training augmented with a soft robotic exosuit, delivered in 18 sessions over 6–8 weeks. Performance based clinical outcomes and biomechanical gait quality parameters were measured at baseline, midpoint, and completion.

Results: Clinically meaningful improvements were observed in walking speed (p < 0.05) and endurance (p < 0.01) together with other traditional gait related outcomes. The gait quality measures including hip (p < 0.01) and knee (p < 0.05) fexion/extension exhibited an increase in range of motion in a symmetric manner (p < 0.05). We also observed an increase in bilateral ankle angular velocities (p < 0.05), suggesting biomechanical improvements in walking function.

Conclusions: The results in this study ofer preliminary evidence that a soft robotic exosuit can be a useful tool to augment high intensity gait training in a clinical setting. This study justifes more expanded research on soft exosuit technology with a larger post-stroke population for more reliable generalization.

Trial registration This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT04251091)

Keywords: Exosuit, Soft robotics, High intensity gait training, Clinical outcomes, Gait quality, Stroke

 

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J. T. Alvarez, et al., “Towards Soft Wearable Strain Sensors for Muscle Activity Monitoring,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 30, pp. 2198-2206, 2022. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The force-generatingcapacity of skeletal muscle is an important metric in the evaluation and diagnosis of musculoskeletal health. Measuring changes in muscle force exertion is essential for tracking the progress of athletes during training, for evaluating patients’ recovery after muscle injury, and also for assisting the diagnosis of conditions such as muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinson’s disease. Traditional hardware for strength evaluation requires technical training for operation, generates discrete time points for muscle assessment, and is implemented in controlled settings. The ability to continuously monitor muscle force without restricting the range of motion or adapting the exercise protocol to suit specific hardware would allow for a richer dataset that can help unlock critical features of muscle health and strength evaluation. In this paper, we employ wearable, ultra-sensitive soft strain sensors for tracking changes in muscle deformation during contractions. We demonstrate the sensors’ sensitivity to isometric contractions, as well as the sensors’ capacity to track changes in peak torque over the course of an isokinetic fatiguing protocol for the knee extensors. The wearable soft system was able to efficiently estimate peak joint torque reduction caused by muscle fatigue (mean NRMSE = 0.15±0.03).
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J. Kim, et al., “Reducing the energy cost of walking with low assistance levels through optimized hip flexion assistance from a soft exosuit,” Nature - Scientific Reports, vol. 12, no. 11004, 2022. Publisher's VersionAbstract
As we age, humans see natural decreases in muscle force and power which leads to a slower, less efficient gait. Improving mobility for both healthy individuals and those with muscle impairments/weakness has been a goal for exoskeleton designers for decades. In this work, we discover that significant reductions in the energy cost required for walking can be achieved with almost 50% less mechanical power compared to the state of the art. This was achieved by leveraging human-in-the-loop optimization to understand the importance of individualized assistance for hip flexion, a relatively unexplored joint motion. Specifically, we show that a tethered hip flexion exosuit can reduce the metabolic rate of walking by up to 15.2 ± 2.6%, compared to locomotion with assistance turned off (equivalent to 14.8% reduction compared to not wearing the exosuit). This large metabolic reduction was achieved with surprisingly low assistance magnitudes (average of 89 N, ~ 24% of normal hip flexion torque). Furthermore, the ratio of metabolic reduction to the positive exosuit power delivered was 1.8 times higher than ratios previously found for hip extension and ankle plantarflexion. These findings motivated the design of a lightweight (2.31 kg) and portable hip flexion assisting exosuit, that demonstrated a 7.2 ± 2.9% metabolic reduction compared to walking without the exosuit. The high ratio of metabolic reduction to exosuit power measured in this study supports previous simulation findings and provides compelling evidence that hip flexion may be an efficient joint motion to target when considering how to create practical and lightweight wearable robots to support improved mobility.
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H. D. Yang, M. Cooper, A. Eckert-Erdheim, D. Orzel, and C. J. Walsh, “A Soft Exosuit Assisting Hip Abduction for Knee Adduction Moment Reduction During Walking,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 7439-7446, 2022. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The knee joint experiences significant torques in the frontal plane to keep the body upright during walking. Excessive loading over time can lead to knee osteoarthritis (OA), the progression of which is correlated with external knee adduction moment (KAM). In this paper, we present a wearable soft robotic exosuit that applies a hip abduction torque and evaluate its ability to reduce KAM. The exosuit uses a portable cable actuation system to generate torque when desired while remaining unrestrictive when unpowered. We explored five different force profiles on healthy participants (N=8) walking on an instrumented treadmill at 1.25 m/s. For each force profile, we tested two peak force levels: 15% and 20% of bodyweight. We observed KAM reductions with two of the five profiles. With Force Profile 2 (FP2), peak KAM was reduced by 9.61% and impulse KAM by 12.76%. With Force Profile 5 (FP5), we saw reductions of peak KAM by 6.14% and impulse KAM by 21.09%. These initial findings show that the device has the ability to change walking biomechanics in a consistent and potentially beneficial way.
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S. E. Root, et al., “An Expanding Foam-Fabric Orthopedic Cast,” Advanced Materials Technologies, pp. 2101563, 2022. PDF