Snap-On Robotic Wrist Module for Enhanced Dexterity in Endoscopy


J. B. Gafford, S. Russo, T. Ranzani, R. J. Wood, and C. J. Walsh, “Snap-On Robotic Wrist Module for Enhanced Dexterity in Endoscopy,” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, Sweden, 2016, pp. 4398-4405.
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Date Presented:

16-21 May 2016


Burgeoning transendoscopic procedures, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), provide a promising means of treating early-stage gastric neoplasia in a minimally-invasive way. However, the remote locations of these lesions, coupled with their origination in the submucosal layers of the gastrointestinal tract, often lead to extreme technical, cognitive and ergonomic challenges which combat the widespread applicability and adoption of these techniques. Among these challenges is achieving the in vivo dexterity required to retract and dissect tissue. By leveraging workspace and force data obtained through clinical studies, we developed a modular, disposable, distally-mounted actuator (an 'active endcap') that can augment an endoscopist's distal dexterity in ways that are not achievable with the endoscope's built-in degrees-of-freedom. The device consists of a flexible articulating 'exoskeleton' manufactured via printed-circuit MEMS (PCMEMS) which engages and deflects electrosurgical tools that are passed through the endoscopic working channel. Embedded proprioceptive sensing is implemented on-board using distributed LED/phototransistor pairs and the principle of light intensity modulation (LIM). The distal degree-of-freedom is actuated using shape memory alloy (SMA) technology, and the actuation transmission system is fully contained within a 1-inch-long end cap that can be mounted on the distal end of the endoscope, thereby obviating the need for a mechanical connection to a proximal source. Proof-of-concept tests demonstrate that the actuator adds over 50 degrees of distal articulation to existing tools and can generate 450 mN of lateral force which has been clinically determined to be sufficient for performing circumferential incisions in ESD.

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Last updated on 07/10/2017