Publications

2017
P. Malcolm, et al., “Continuous sweep versus discrete step protocols for studying effects of wearable robot assistance magnitude,” Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 72, 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Background
Different groups developed wearable robots for walking assistance, but there is still a need for methods to quickly tune actuation parameters for each robot and population or sometimes even for individual users. Protocols where parameters are held constant for multiple minutes have traditionally been used for evaluating responses to parameter changes such as metabolic rate or walking symmetry. However, these discrete protocols are time-consuming. Recently, protocols have been proposed where a parameter is changed in a continuous way. The aim of the present study was to compare effects of continuously varying assistance magnitude with a soft exosuit against discrete step conditions.

Methods
Seven participants walked on a treadmill wearing a soft exosuit that assists plantarflexion and hip flexion. In Continuous-up, peak exosuit ankle moment linearly increased from approximately 0 to 38% of biological moment over 10 min. Continuous-down was the opposite. In Discrete, participants underwent five periods of 5 min with steady peak moment levels distributed over the same range as Continuous-up and Continuous-down. We calculated metabolic rate for the entire Continuous-up and Continuous-down conditions and the last 2 min of each Discrete force level. We compared kinematics, kinetics and metabolic rate between conditions by curve fitting versus peak moment.

Results
Reduction in metabolic rate compared to Powered-off was smaller in Continuous-up than in Continuous-down at most peak moment levels, due to physiological dynamics causing metabolic measurements in Continuous-up and Continuous-down to lag behind the values expected during steady-state testing. When evaluating the average slope of metabolic reduction over the entire peak moment range there was no significant difference between Continuous-down and Discrete. Attempting to correct the lag in metabolics by taking the average of Continuous-up and Continuous-down removed all significant differences versus Discrete. For kinematic and kinetic parameters, there were no differences between all conditions.

Conclusions
The finding that there were no differences in biomechanical parameters between all conditions suggests that biomechanical parameters can be recorded with the shortest protocol condition (i.e. single Continuous directions). The shorter time and higher resolution data of continuous sweep protocols hold promise for the future study of human interaction with wearable robots.

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A. Atalay, et al., “Batch Fabrication of Customizable Silicone-Textile Composite Capacitive Strain Sensors for Human Motion Tracking,” Advanced Materials Technologies, 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This paper presents design and batch manufacturing of a highly stretchable textile-silicone capacitive sensor to be used in human articulation detection, soft robotics, and exoskeletons. The proposed sensor is made of conductive knit fabric as electrode and silicone elastomer as dielectric. The batch manufacturing technology enables production of large sensor mat and arbitrary shaping of sensors, which is precisely achieved via laser cutting of the sensor mat. Individual capacitive sensors exhibit high linearity, low hysteresis, and a gauge factor of 1.23. Compliant, low-profile, and robust electrical connections are established by fusing filaments of micro coaxial cable to conductive fabric electrodes of the sensor with thermoplastic film. The capacitive sensors are integrated on a reconstructed glove for monitoring finger motions.
PDF Supplementary Material
L. N. Awad, et al., “Soft Wearable Robots Can Increase Walking Speed and Distance After Stroke: Proof of Concept,” in Combined Sections Meeting of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA CSM), San Antonio, TX, USA, February 15-18, 2017.
P. Malcolm, et al., “Varying negative work assistance at the ankle with a soft exosuit during loaded walking,” Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 62, 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Background
Only very recently, studies have shown that it is possible to reduce the metabolic rate of unloaded and loaded walking using robotic ankle exoskeletons. Some studies obtained this result by means of high positive work assistance while others combined negative and positive work assistance. There is no consensus about the isolated contribution of negative work assistance. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the effect of varying negative work assistance at the ankle joint while maintaining a fixed level of positive work assistance with a multi-articular soft exosuit.

Methods
We tested eight participants during walking at 1.5 ms−1 with a 23-kg backpack. Participants wore a version of the exosuit that assisted plantarflexion via Bowden cables tethered to an off-board actuation platform. In four active conditions we provided different rates of exosuit bilateral ankle negative work assistance ranging from 0.015 to 0.037 W kg−1 and a fixed rate of positive work assistance of 0.19 W kg−1.

Results
All active conditions significantly reduced metabolic rate by 11 to 15% compared to a reference condition, where the participants wore the exosuit but no assistance was provided. We found no significant effect of negative work assistance. However, there was a trend (p = .08) toward greater reduction in metabolic rate with increasing negative work assistance, which could be explained by observed reductions in biological ankle and hip joint power and moment.

Conclusions
The non-significant trend of increasing negative work assistance with increasing reductions in metabolic rate motivates the value in further studies on the relative effects of negative and positive work assistance. There may be benefit in varying negative work over a greater range or in isolation from positive work assistance.

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O. Araromi, C. J. Walsh, and R. J. Wood, “Hybrid carbon fiber-textile compliant force sensors for high-load sensing in soft exosuits,” in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Vancouver, BC, Canada, September 24-28, 2017.
G. Lee, Y. Ding, I. B. Galiana, N. Karavas, A. Eckert-Erdheim, and C. J. Walsh, “Improved assistance profile tracking for walking and jogging soft exosuits with off-board actuation,” in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Vancouver, BC, Canada, September 24-28, 2017.
J. B. Gafford, R. J. Wood, and C. J. Walsh, “Distal Proprioceptive Sensor for Feedback Control of Modular Roboendoscopic Systems,” in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Vancouver, BC, Canada, September 24-28, 2017.
C. J. Payne, et al., “Wearable Soft Robotic Device Supports the Failing Heart In Vivo,” in The 9th Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics, London, June 25-28, 2017.
M. B. Yandell, B. T. Quinlivan, D. Popov, C. J. Walsh, and K. E. Zelik, “Human-Exosuit Interfaces Absorb and Return Energy, Reshaping Exosuit to Human Power Flow,” in 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics (ASB), Boulder, CO, August 8-11, 2017.
P. Malcolm, et al., “Effect of slope and speed on kinetics of jogging with a backpack,” in 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics (ASB), Boulder, CO, August 8-11, 2017.
W. Bowers, et al., “Effect of powered exosuit training on impulse during gait,” in 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics (ASB), Boulder, CO, August 8-11, 2017.
L. Sloot, et al., “Unilateral ankle assisting soft robotic exosuit can improve post-stroke gait during overground walking,” in 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics (ASB), Boulder, CO, August 8-11, 2017.
P. Kudzia, et al., “A uni-lateral soft exosuit for the paretic ankle can reduce gait compensations in patients post-stroke,” in 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics (ASB), Boulder, CO, August 8-11, 2017.
M. B. Yandell, B. T. Quinlivan, D. Popov, C. J. Walsh, and K. E. Zelik, “Human-Exosuit Interfaces Absorb and Return Energy, Reshaping Exosuit to Human Power Flow,” in XXVI Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB), Brisbane, Australia, July 23-27, 2017.
C. J. Payne, et al., “An Implantable Extracardiac Soft Robotic Device for the Failing Heart: Mechanical Coupling and Synchronization,” Soft Robotics, 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Soft robotic devices have significant potential for medical device applications that warrant safe synergistic interaction with humans. This article describes the optimization of an implantable soft robotic system for heart failure whereby soft actuators wrapped around the ventricles are programmed to contract and relax in synchrony with the beating heart. Elastic elements integrated in to the soft actuators provide recoiling function so as to aid refilling during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Improved synchronization with the biological system is achieved by incorporating the native ventricular pressure in to the control system to trigger assistance and synchronize the device with the heart. A three-state electro-pneumatic valve configuration allows the actuators to contract at different rates to vary contraction patterns. An in vivo study was performed to test three hypotheses relating to mechanical coupling and temporal synchronization of the actuators and heart. First, that adhesion of the actuators to the ventricles improves cardiac output. Second, that there is a contraction–relaxation ratio of the actuators which generates optimal cardiac output. Third, that the rate of actuator contraction is a factor in cardiac output.
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O. Atalay, A. Atalay, J. Gafford, H. Wang, R. Wood, and C. Walsh, “A Highly Stretchable Capacitive-Based Strain Sensor Based on Metal Deposition and Laser Rastering,” Advanced Materials Technologies, 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Wearable sensing technology is an emerging area and can be utilized for human motion monitoring, physiology monitoring, and human–machine interaction. In this paper, a new manufacturing approach is presented to create highly stretchable and soft capacitance-based strain sensors. This involves a rapid surface modification technique based on direct-write laser rastering to create microstructured surfaces on prestrained elastomeric sheets. Then, to impart conductivity, sputtering technology is utilized to deposit aluminum and silver metal layers on the bottom and top surfaces of the elastomer sheet, creating a soft capacitor. During benchtop characterization of the sensors, this study demonstrates that the fabricated electrodes maintain their electrical conductivity up to the 250% strain, and the sensor shows a linear and repeatable output up to 85% strain. Finally, their potential is demonstrated for monitoring human motion and respiration through their integration into a wearable arm sleeve and a thoracic belt, respectively.
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G. Lee, et al., “Reducing the metabolic cost of running with a tethered soft exosuit,” Science Robotics, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. eaan6708, 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Assisting hip extension with a tethered exosuit and a simulation-optimized force profile reduces metabolic cost of running.
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E. J. Park, et al., “Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Multi-Robotic System with Pelvic and Hip Assistance for Pediatric Gait Rehabilitation,” in 15th IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), London, July 17-20, 2017.
C. O'Neill, N. Phipps, L. Cappello, S. Paganoni, and C. J. Walsh, “Soft Robotic Shoulder Support: Design, Characterization, and Preliminary Testing,” in 15th IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), London, July 17-20, 2017.
M. B. Yandell, B. T. Quinlivan, D. Popov, C. Walsh, and K. E. Zelik, “Physical interface dynamics alter how robotic exosuits augment human movement: implications for optimizing wearable assistive devices,” Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 40, 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

 

Background
Wearable assistive devices have demonstrated the potential to improve mobility outcomes for individuals with disabilities, and to augment healthy human performance; however, these benefits depend on how effectively power is transmitted from the device to the human user. Quantifying and understanding this power transmission is challenging due to complex human-device interface dynamics that occur as biological tissues and physical interface materials deform and displace under load, absorbing and returning power.

Methods
Here we introduce a new methodology for quickly estimating interface power dynamics during movement tasks using common motion capture and force measurements, and then apply this method to quantify how a soft robotic ankle exosuit interacts with and transfers power to the human body during walking. We partition exosuit end-effector power (i.e., power output from the device) into power that augments ankle plantarflexion (termed augmentation power) vs. power that goes into deformation and motion of interface materials and underlying soft tissues (termed interface power).

Results
We provide empirical evidence of how human-exosuit interfaces absorb and return energy, reshaping exosuit-to-human power flow and resulting in three key consequences: (i) During exosuit loading (as applied forces increased), about 55% of exosuit end-effector power was absorbed into the interfaces. (ii) However, during subsequent exosuit unloading (as applied forces decreased) most of the absorbed interface power was returned viscoelastically. Consequently, the majority (about 75%) of exosuit end-effector work over each stride contributed to augmenting ankle plantarflexion. (iii) Ankle augmentation power (and work) was delayed relative to exosuit end-effector power, due to these interface energy absorption and return dynamics.

Conclusions
Our findings elucidate the complexities of human-exosuit interface dynamics during transmission of power from assistive devices to the human body, and provide insight into improving the design and control of wearable robots. We conclude that in order to optimize the performance of wearable assistive devices it is important, throughout design and evaluation phases, to account for human-device interface dynamics that affect power transmission and thus human augmentation benefits.

 

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